SME Server:Documentation:FAQ/it

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Frequently Asked Questions

I questa pagina sono contenute le domande più comuni (FAQ) riguardanti SME 7, la soluzione ai problemi più frequenti riscontrati dagli utenti nell'installazione e nell'aggiornamento potrai trovarla qui.

Se non trovi quello che stai cercando non disperare, prova a consultare il Bugzilla di SME.


Yum Updates

Quali repository dovrebbero essere abilitati

Dovresti avere abilitati i seguenti repository (blue)

CentOS - os
CentOS - updates
SME Server - addons
SME Server - os
SME Server - updates.

NON abilitare SME Server - updates testing perchè contiene la versione di sviluppo di SME a meno che

  • sia un server di TEST e NON di produzione
  • tu voglia entrare a far parte del team di sviluppo.

Inoltre ricorda che

  • SME Server - test contiene pacchetti altamente sperimentali, è da considerarsi versione Alpha.
  • SME Server - dev contiene dei pacchetti sperimentali generati in maniera automatica. Potrebbero essere incompleti e incompatibili con altre applicazioni.


Warning.png Warning:
In caso di aggiornamento da versioni precedenti alla 7.1 update 1, per esempio installazioni effettuate con il cd 7.1 o più datati, assicurati di aver le ultime versioni dei seguenti pacchetti. Questo permetterà un processo di installazione e update più veloce evitando il download di pacchetti CentOS inutili.
yum update smeserver-support smeserver-yum yum yum-plugin-fastest-mirror python-sqlite 
signal-event post-upgrade
signal-event reboot


Important.png Note:
Un sistema installato con il cd SME 7.1 avrà abilitati i 5 repository elencati precedentemente, diversamente uno installato con il cd versione 7.0 e successivamente aggiornato a 7.1 avrà solo 3 repository abilitati. Dopo l'aggiornamento dovresti abilitare i repository Centos - os e Centos - updates utilizzando il server-manager.


Riconfigurazione / post-upgrade e reboot

  • Quando sono necessari i comandi post-upgrade e reboot?

La procedura di installazione di pacchetti tramite server-manager non ha modo di determinare se sono stati modificati dei file di configurazione e quindi la necessità di un riavvio del sistema. Solo l'opzione safe riconfigura e fa ripartire tutto.

Dopo aver selezionato Riconfigura il server inizierà la procedura di reboot. Nei rari casi in cui il server non entri in modalità di riconfigurazione si possono utilizzare i comandi

signal-event post-upgrade; signal-event reboott

Aggiornare da SME 7.x a SME 7.2

Per prima cosa bisogna installare gli ultimi file di configurazione per yum:

yum update smeserver-support smeserver-yum yum yum-plugin-fastest-mirror python-sqlite
signal-event post-upgrade; signal-event reboot

Ora si deve svuotare la cache di yum e forzare il sistema ad usare i repositories di default

yum clean all
yum --disablerepo=* \
--enablerepo=base \
--enablerepo=updates \
--enablerepo=smeaddons \
--enablerepo=smeos \
--enablerepo=smeupdates \
update
signal-event post-upgrade; signal-event reboot

Ultmo passo è il settare i repositories di yum ai nuovi usati di default (per versioni successive a SME 7.1)

cd /home/e-smith/db/
mv yum_repositories yum_repositories.po
/etc/e-smith/events/actions/initialize-default-databases
signal-event yum-modify

Consulta anche Updating to SME 7.2 per eventuali ulteriori passaggi che potrebbero essere necessari.

Informazioni generali

  • Cosa significa il messaggio 'Please Wait - Yum Running (prereposetup)' ?

Significa che yum sta cercando eventuali update presenti. In caso siano presenti molti aggiornamenti il processo potrebbe impiegare tempi molto lunghi, anche superiori a 10 minuti

  • Yum sembra non funzionare correttamente. Cosa posso fare?

Se per qualche motivo yum non dovesse funzionare correttamente puoi provare

yum clean metadata
oppure 'yum clean all'
yum update
  • Come posso risolvere l'errore 'Metadata file does not match checksum' ?

Il tipico messaggio che si ha è

http://apt.sw.be/fedora/3/en/i386/dag/repodata/primary.xml.gz: 
[Errno -1] Metadata file does not match checksum Trying other mirror.
Error: failure: repodata/primary.xml.gz from dag: [Errno 256] No more mirrors to try.

Per ripristinare la lista corretta dei repository utilizzando wget si usa:

wget --cache=off http://apt.sw.be/fedora/3/en/i386/dag/repodata/filelists.xml.gz
wget --cache=off http://apt.sw.be/fedora/3/en/i386/dag/repodata/primary.xml.gz
wget --cache=off http://apt.sw.be/fedora/3/en/i386/dag/repodata/repomd.xml
yum update
  • Uno spegnimento imprevisto durante un aggiornamento può mettere il sistema in uno stato instabile difficile da risolvere

Cerca di non staccare la spina elettrica e usa un UPS! :)

  • Dove posso trovare maggiori informazioni su yum e come viene usato in SME?

Adding_Software , man yum, http://linux.duke.edu/projects/yum/

Utilizzo e gestione dei repository

  • Qual'è la procedura per aggiungere altri repository per yum?

L'esempio seguente usa il repository dungog settandolo come disabilitato. Il repository si configura da command line con l'opzione --enablerepo= .

db yum_repositories set dungog repository \
Name 'SME Server 7 - dungog' \
BaseURL 'http://sme.dungog.net/packages/smeserver/7.0/i386/dungog/' \
EnableGroups yes \
GPGCheck no \
Visible no \
status disabled
  • Come posso rimuovere i repository di yum?
db yum_repositories delete repositoryname
signal-event yum-modify
  • Come si disabilita un repository potendolo poi riabilitare in futuro con --enablerepo= ?
db yum_repositories repositoryname setprop status disabled
signal-event yum-modify

Client Computers

  • Samba trust relationships lost?

This is a possible bug with an upgrade from SME6. After an upgrade, local workstations cannot log in. If you are experiencing this problem, please have a look at this bug for a fix, and provide followup: [[1]]


  • Windows XP Clients - Patch to logon to SME domain

This patch can be used when Windows XP clients won't be able to log on to the SME Server domain. The registry patch is located here: http://servername/server-resources/regedit/winxplogon.reg Double click on the winxplogon.reg file and the settings will be added to the Windows Registry.


  • How to disable password caching on Windows 95/98/ME/2000 Clients?

This patch can be used if you don't want Windows clients to remember password for shared folders on SME Server. The registry patch is located here: http://servername/server-resources/regedit/win98pwdcache.reg Just double click on the win98pwdcache.reg file and the settings will be added to the Windows Registry.

Note Although the filename seems to indicate that this patch will only work for Windows 98, but it also works in Windows 95, Windows ME and Windows 2000.


  • LDAP Directory Gives MAPI_E_CALL_FAIL Errors on Outlook 2002 or Outlook 2003

In Outlook 2002 or 2003 when someone tries to find a contact using the LDAP server, a message stating that "Unavailable critical extension" and then a second message saying "The search could not be completed. MAPI_E_CALL_FAIL" shows up and nothing shows up from the search. The directory works beautifully in Thunderbird 1.5 as well as Outlook 2000, but not 2002 or 2003. More information can be found here:[[2]] [[3]]


  • Where is the netlogon directory?

The netlogon directory is located on the SMESERVER at: /home/e-smith/files/samba/netlogon It can also be found by a client computer at: \\servername\netlogon


Firewall/Port Forwarding,Opening,Blocking

  • How do I configure the firewall?

The server manager is the GUI front end for the firewall. The firewall is modified automatically in response to changes you make in the configuration, such as enabling/disabling services, marking them public/private, forwarding ports, etc. If you wish to make changes beyond those provided for by the server manager, you can do so by providing custom templates

  • How do I allow public access to a service I've added to SME Server 7?

The procedure has changed and is now much simpler in SME Server 7. For this example the service you have installed is called 'manta' and 'nnn' is the TCP port number that needs to be opened. Watch your capitalization with the command below:

 config set manta service access public status enabled TCPPort nnn

For UDP services, use UDPPort instead of TCPPort. Note that you can also set restrictions with AllowHosts and DenyHosts:

 config setprop manta AllowHosts 1.2.3.4,10.11.12.0/24 
 config setprop manta DenyHosts 16.17.18.18
 

Then, to activate, do:

 signal-event remoteaccess-update


  • I want to block traffic from some ip-addresses to my server on some port.
config setprop httpd-e-smith DenyHosts a.b.c.d,w.x.y.z
signal-event post-upgrade
signal-event reboot


  • I want to block All traffic from some ip-addresses to my server.

Create a custom template and list the IP's

mkdir -p /etc/e-smith/templates-custom/etc/rc.d/init.d/masq/
pico -w /etc/e-smith/templates-custom/etc/rc.d/init.d/masq/40DenyRiffRaff
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -s 69.212.12.76/32 -j DROP
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -s 88.28.215.11/32 -j DROP

expand and restart

/sbin/e-smith/expand-template /etc/rc.d/init.d/masq
/etc/init.d/masq restart


  • I want to have two WAN addresses; one for the SMESERVER and another that needs to be treated like a "Local Network". I can't set any address from the WAN subnet as a "Local Network".

This is intended behaviour as SMESERVER is secure by design. If you need to do something like this, you should know what you are doing and understand what to poke under the covers.

Web Applications

  • chmod 777

Using 777 is always wrong (despite the fact that many howtos recommend it). 0770 is sufficient, as long as www is a member of the group owning the directory, and is safer.

Use chown www /path/to/dir
and preferably put your app in /opt/app not in an ibay

  • Wasn't mod_perl installed in previous versions? How do I install it?

It may have been, but it was not used so it is no longer included. If you do want to install it do the following:

Note The commands on a linux shell are case-sensitive, this means that Capital is not the same as capital.

 yum install mod_perl
 config setprop modPerl status enabled
 signal-event post-upgrade ; signal-event reboot

  • The directory structure is visible. How do I disable indexes in ibays?

SME Server 6.0, 6.0.1, and 6.5 all had the following for the ibays/html directory - "Options Indexes Includes". This would indicate that indexes were allowed for html directories. In SME Server 7.0 this is made a parameter and it defaults to enabled to be compatible with SME Server releases before SME Server 7.0 installations.

To disable indexes for an ibay in SME Server 7.0 do the following:

 db accounts setprop //ibayname// Indexes disabled 
 signal-event ibay-modify //ibayname// 

This issue was first reported here: [[4]]

  • I need to create (or install) a PHP application that needs access to the /tmp directory.
db accounts setprop ibayname PHPBaseDir /tmp/:/home/e-smith/files/ibays/ibayname/
signal-event ibay-modify ibayname

By default if you have PHP code in an IBAY, it can only run in that IBAY. The above commands will allow PHP code in the IBAY to run outside of its installed directory.

Here is a list of all the IBAY specific settings: [[5]]

Reset the root and admin password

1. Restart your server and at the beginning of the boot-up use the arrow keys to select the kernel you would like to boot into.

2. Press A , to allow you to append parameters to your grub boot settings.

3. Be careful not to change anything, only add the following after the A (Be sure to put a space before single):

  single

4. Press enter. you will be presented with a prompt.

5. At this prompt type the following two commands (each followed by a return). You will be asked to provide a new password. Reset both your root and your admin password and set them to the same value:

 passwd root
 passwd admin

Reboot your server and everything should be okay now.


File Size Limitations

  • Apache, the web server can only transfer or show files under 2G
  • Backup to USB Disk

FAT32 only supports file size of <4GB. It is recommended that you format your external usb drives to ext3.

Log Messages

  • Log message regarding permissions on /var/spool/qpsmtpd/

You may see messages similar to this in your log file:

@400000004326e9472eccc42c 3243 trying to get config for spool_dir @400000004326e9472ed518fc 3243 Permissions on spool_dir /var/spool/qpsmtpd/ are not 0700

They can be safely ignored. Clamav runs under a different user and needs read access to the spool area to avoid copying the file. [[6]]


  • I get messages that look like: (pam_unix)[31705]: session opened for user root by (uid=0)

Most likely these messages coming from a package called SYSSTAT. The package was included in the previous versions of SMESERVER but were removed from the final version of V7. If you see the messages, most likely you had a previous version and upgraded. SYSSTAT isn't needed unless you have a contrib package called SME7ADMIN.

You can safely remove the package by:

yum remove sysstat

Please note that these messages may be caused by other cron jobs (tasks that run automatically) or packages authenticating as root.


  • I get a message saying that: the RSA server certificate CommonName (CN)`servername.domainname.tld' does NOT match server name!

If you change the servername, you will be prompted to reboot. When you do, the SMESERVER will generate a certificate for the new servername-domainname combination and httpd.conf will now reference that new name. References to other virtual domains and hosts will generate warnings in the log.


  • I get: server squid[3145]: WARNING: Disk space over limit: 148412 KB 102400 KB.

This message is just log noise. The message is informational and squid takes care of the issue itself.


  • I get in the radius log: Info: Using deprecated naslist file. Support for this will go away soon.

This is just the radius daemon (a computer program that runs in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user) complaining about a file that exists in the directory. We don't use it.


  • I get in the clamd log: Error: cli_untar: only standard TAR files are currently supported

Clam (the antivirus portion of SMESERVER) has found a file type which it can't deal with, and so is telling you that it can't scan that file.

Nothing to be concerned about. The fix, if any arrives, will come from the Clam team if they Determine this file format is worthy of their attention.


  • I get in the smeserver-clamscan.log: LibClamAV Warning: Multipart/alternative MIME message contains no boundary header.

This is just log noise. Clamav is scanning badly formatted MIME mail.

Virtual Domains

  • When I create a VIRTUAL DOMAIN, I don't see anything listed in the HOSTNAMES AND ADDRESSES panel for that VIRTUAL DOMAIN.

For a virtual domain to be effective (for email or web), it needs to be configured as INTERNET DNS SERVERS (this is the default value). Since the domain resolves via INTERNET DNS SERVERS, no hostnames or addresses are created locally. For more info please visit the Administration Manual section regarding Domains: [[7]]

Proxy Pass

  • I want to pass some http requests to a server behind my SME Server or external to my site, how can I do this?

You can set a ProxyPass directive that will pass certain requests to an internal or external server that hosts the domain to be proxypassed

db domains set proxypassdomain.com domain Nameservers internet
db domains setprop proxypassdomain.com ProxyPassTarget http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/
db domains setprop proxypassdomain.com TemplatePath ProxyPassVirtualHosts 
signal-event domain-create proxypassdomain.com

where proxypassdomain.com is the domain name hosted on the internal or external server and http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/ is the IP address of the internal or external server eg 192.168.1.20 or 122.456.12.171 (it must be the publicly accessible IP if an external server)


Important.png Note:
If you have added the internal or external server's domain name as a virtual domain on the SME Server, you must remove it prior to issueing these commands. This ProxyPass has only been tested with http (not https). Some have reported success with https however YMMV. The server-manager domains panel will show the proxy pass entry but you will not be able to edit it. A ProxyPass panel is in the works, see bugzilla:1612.

Shell Access

  • I need to give a user shell access to the SMESERVER.

Shell access should only be provided to users who have a *need* for it and can be trusted. You can enable shell access for a user by:

db accounts setprop username Shell /bin/bash
chsh -s /bin/bash username


  • Improve user remote shell cosmetics

Create a .bash_profile file for the user in ~

# include .bashrc if it exists
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
   source ~/.bashrc
fi

Upgrading

  • What's the best way to upgrade from previous versions?

An article is written for this subject. Please visit: http://wiki.contribs.org/UpgradeDisk


Users

  • I can't delete a user for some reason. What do I do now?

If for some reason you can't delete a user try:

signal-event user-delete <username>
db accounts delete <username>


  • I was looking in the home directory of a user and I see a hidden directory called ".junkmail". Do I need that? Can I delete it?

Don't remove or rename .junkmail folders.


Hard Drives, RAID's, USB Hard Drives

  • How should I setup my hard-drives?

We never recommend anything other than a single disk install or multiple disks of the same type. Anything else and you are following an unrecommended setup and you will need to navigate for yourself. Repeat, we never recommend anything other than a single disk install or multiple disks of the same type. If you're thinking of doing anything else (setup your own partitions), read this section again.


  • How should I setup my RAID?

A full article on RAID is found here: [[8]]


  • I want to use a hardware RAID. What do you suggest?

Please see the notes in the RAID article: [[9]]


  • I'm installing a RAID 5 but it seems to take a long time. Is there something wrong?

RAID 5 systems (those with 3+ disks) can take a long time during and after the install for everything to sync. Reportedly, it takes almost 2 hours before the disks finally finish syncing on 4 X 80GB disks.


  • If I boot my SMESERVER with a USB hard drive attached, it recognizes the drive. However, after unplugging the drive, then replugging, it no longer exists. Any ideas why?

Reportedly, some external usb hd's must be completely powered up before connecting the usb cable.


Backups & Restores

  • AIT-1 Backup: buffer unreliable

An AIT-1 is unreliable if used with variable block size. Set the setting

config setprop flexbackup TapeBlocksize 512

AIT-2, DAT and LTO seem to work well with variable block size.


  • Slow tape backup performance may be improved by changing Flex backup settings
config setprop flexbackup Blocksize 256
config setprop flexbackup BufferMegs 16


  • In the ADMIN CONSOLE, there is an option to BACKUP TO USB but there are no restore options.

The RESTORE option is only visible on a new install. If you missed this during install, you can

config set PasswordSet no 
signal-event post-upgrade; signal-event reboot 

During reboot reconfiguration process you should see the new restore via USB backup option.

-NOW plug in the usb drive (Do not plug in the usb drive until you reach this point).
-pick YES or RESTORE (or whatever is presented to you)

Supervised Services

  • Many services on SME are supervised, to see which are type
ps ax |grep runsv

To control them read the sv manual

man sv
  • it seems that "sv u http-e-smith" gives no errors, even if the service fails to restart, so you need to use "sv s httpd-e-smith" to check if it fails (example: due to a httpd.conf error)

This is just the way that runsv (part of the runit package) works. The "sv u http-e-smith" only sends a message to runsv saying that we want the service to be up. runsv then will keep trying to get the service running.


Server-Manager

  • I can't access the server-manager. What do I do now?

There are many reasons why you wouldn't be to access the server-manager. First try:

signal-event post-upgrade;  signal-event reboot

If you still can't access, there are reports that a certificates mis-match might have occurred after update. In that case:

rm /home/e-smith/ssl.key/*.key
rm /home/e-smith/ssl.pem/*.pem
rm /home/e-smith/ssl.crt/*.crt
signal-event domain-modify; signal-event reboot


  • I used to access the SERVER-MANAGER with localhost:980 remotely via SSH tunnel and now I can't. What happened?

This feature has been deprecated a long time and finally removed in V7.2

If you really want to use this then forward 443 to localhost:443 and then use https://localhost/server-manager/

Email

Important.png Note:
Please refer to the Email Page

Known Problems

This section is to be used to document problems that cannot or will not be fixed through development of SME7.


Important.png Note:
Please refer to the KnownProblems page